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Writing Effective Conclusions and Summaries

This handout focuses on the main functions of the conclusion and provides strategies for writing effective conclusion paragraphs. It will further help you evaluate the conclusions you have drafted and also propose ways you must follow for perfect writing.

About the conclusion

Although it may seem difficult to draft, it is worth the time to write the introduction and conclusion. As we all know, they will greatly affect your overall reader experience.

The conclusion gives you the opportunity to pass across the last word with regard to the topic. In addition, it allows you to have the final decision on all questions and arguments raised in the paper. It helps to synthesize your ideas, emphasize the importance of your ideas, and guide readers to understand different perspectives on the subject.

The perfect conclusion should be one that makes readers happy or feel lucky to read your work. Your conclusion provides readers with something that allows them to look at things in different ways and appreciate your chosen topic in unique ways. The meaning in the advice should not only interest your readers but also influence their lives in one way or another. This is a priceless treasure for readers.

Tips for writing effective conclusions

The following are various ways to use when writing the conclusion of the paper:

  1. Follow the game “So What?”

If you are confused and feel that the conclusion is not helpful to your writing, then let a friend read it along with you. The hint is that whenever you read the sentence in the conclusion paragraph, ask your friend to respond “Why on Earth should I care?” or “So what?” All you have to do is to carefully think about the questions and provide answers. Or, you can play the game alone by asking yourself “what’s that?” question and come up with a conceived idea.

  1. Restate the topic in the introduction

With this strategy, you reader is placed in a circle motion. For example, if you describe a situation in the introductory paragraph, you can end the paper with the same situation to prove that your paper can bring a whole new understanding. Similarly, you can cite the introduction by using the corresponding concepts, images, and keywords used in the introduction.

  1. Comprehensive rather than a summary

Although you can briefly outline the main points in the paper, please avoid repeating the facts you put forward in the paper. Instead, you can show the points you made and how the examples and supporting facts used fit together.

  1. Call for action

You can propose action plans, or solutions to the problems that have been raised. This will help redirect the reader’s thought process while enabling them to apply your ideas and information to their lives or to see the big picture in your concepts.

  1. Point to wider implications

For example, if in your paper you examine any event in the Civil Rights Movement, you may point out the event’s impact on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole.

Ultimate Guide on Finding Academic Sources for Research Papers

Exploring existing literature, both old and new, for information on your chosen topic is one of the critical steps to writing a research paper. Though reading through as many pieces as possible may be daunting, it is a necessary evil because every research paper should have a trustworthy academic source. As a result, you should be able to differentiate scholarly works from ordinary write-ups.

What are scholarly sources for academic papers?

Academic sources are credible information on previous research found in books, journals, publications, and internet sources. These sources mostly work from experts on particular fields or topics and include students, professors, academic societies, and other professionals.

Before any publication or academic work is certified, a panel of scholars, academic bodies, and other professionals sit on it to define its scientific value and relevance.

Features of an Academic Article

A research paper contains all or some of the following sections:

  1. Abstract
  2. Table of content
  3. Abbreviations
  4. Introduction
  5. Literature review
  6. Methodology
  7. Objectives
  8. Discussions
  9. Conclusion
  10. References of sources used for the papers

Places to search Academic Sources for Research Papers

You can get scholarly sources, both online and offline. To save time and energy, you can start your search from your university/college’s websites, library, and academic publications. Also, you can use web sources like Google Scholar, Google, Book, websites of government agencies, agencies. Websites like JSTOR, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Openlibrary, SciSeek, and can help when searching for credible sources.

Guide for Collecting Academic Sources

As you research for your academic work, it is important to keep records to avoid oversights. To be productive in your research, you need to compile a useful bibliography to prevent you from going back and forth, searching for sources of information. Also, you don’t need to:

  • Include  information you aren’t sure of its relevance to your work
  • Eliminate sources with the same or repeated group of information
  • Put together as many resources as possible
  • To avoid plagiarism, paraphrase information from sources or reword them
  • In case you want to use direct quoting, maintain the original wordings of the source
  • Reference all the sources you use in the paper

Tools to help you save and structure your sources

As you peruse literature for your research, make sure you take notes to save you time and energy on the writing process. While keeping notes, you should also keep the sources for them to make referencing easier. Through your readings, take notes of the

  • Sources bibliography
  • Objectives of the author
  • Data and methodology used
  • Theories
  • Findings of the research
  • Limitations of the research
  • Sources of the publications

For a proper organization of your sources, you can use services and applications including:

  1. Zetoro

It is a free application that enables you to add tags, sort items, and save your research information. Zetoro has an extension that helps you navigate the web to collect information.

  1. Mendeley

It helps you save your sources, generate references, and access them from any device.

  1. Evernote

Evernote helps researchers to create folders, get information, add tags and save images for your research.

Crafting the Best Hooks for Research Papers

Research papers are interesting works written to unearth new findings and contribute to what has been done in the past. Therefore, you should give your research paper a great introduction. The research paper should have a hook that will encourage readers to read beyond the introduction section.  A hook is then an initial sentence or a group of sentences aimed at creating a desire for your audience to continue reading your paper.

In all your writing, you should ensure that your audience is engaged from the start to the end. Therefore, the beginning is very critical because it can either encourage or cause readers to shy away from the entire paper. This is a good way to motivate your readers and push them to proceed with reading your paper in every section to get a clear picture of what you are writing about.

Quality Hooks for Research papers

Your research paper hook can take different formats. It can either be an interesting fact, a quotation, a question and so on. All you need to do is to make sure that it blends in with your paper. Here are some of the best hooks to include in your paper and how to write them:

  • A quotation hook. Quote known writers and authors as a way of introducing your research paper. Your quotation should carry enough weight especially about the topic that you are writing about. Readers will be interested to find out more about other details of your paper.
  • Provide interesting facts and statistics. Use facts to win the attention of your readers. The credibility of your research paper is greatly enhanced when you take the time to get facts into your introduction. There will be a little more desire created within your audience. Make use of data and statistics drawn from credible sources to start your paper and show how important it is to both past and current research.
  • Make a bold statement. All your introduction requires sometimes is a strong statement and argument to draw the attention of your readers. It is important to make sure that it is assertive and convincing enough to create interest in them. It could highlight the importance of your research and the contribution it will make upon completion.
  • Use a question. Your research paper introduction can also revolve around an interesting question to provoke interest among your readers. You can also consider a rhetorical question to help you build your introduction. You must make sure that there is a good flow in your introduction. Questions should be clear enough to allow readers to have a desire to find a solution after reading the research paper.

Final Remarks

Great research papers have a high-quality introduction. Readers are looking for meaning and significance in your research paper. Therefore, you should endeavor to make the most of your introduction to win the attention of your audience. There are different approaches to take as outlined here. Any can be a good option as long as you know how best it fits in your research paper.

Great Research Paper Example

An excellent research paper has different aspects that make it stand out. However, many students fall short when writing outstanding research because of a lack of a reference point. Because of this, consider the following sample to ensure that the piece you come up with scores highly.

Sample of a Research Paper

  • The first page of the research paper should have your title, name (both the student and institution), and year, all aligned at the middle and center of the page with an appropriate font. Further, you have to use double spacing.

“Study of the behavioral obedience”

By Jonathan Wright, University of Ohio


  • Page two should contain the abstract, and ensure that the text begins at the top left corner

Few facts exist on the significance of obedience in committing acts that run against your conscience (1960). Most theories imply that only disturbed individuals prove capable when it comes to administering pain, especially when ordered to do it. The study tested the obedience of individuals to authority. The study results demonstrated that most people obey orders from authority figures. Contrary to popular belief out there, personal ethics has little meaning when you pit it against authority.

  • Page three should have your introduction and should begin at the top and left corner with no more spacing when aligning the text.

Present theories concentrate on individual features to illustrate wrong-doing besides how an individual can harm others intentionally. In some studies conducted earlier, experts like psychologists, doctors, and laymen predicted that a small proportion of the population possess the ability to injure others when ordered.

In the latest Adolph Eichmann war trial, he asserts the notion of only following orders, and the author intended to test the claim. Can individuals harm others on accord of following orders? Can individuals get ordered to do something against their ethical convictions?

The study will test the ability of an individual to keep administering painful waterboarding practice on someone else simply because they got ordered to? The anticipation proves that few people will keep at the act of waterboarding others and that a large proportion of the participants will contravene the order.

  • Methods should contain the participants, instruments used, and the procedures.

For instance, 40 males participated in the study and got recruited through an advertisement put on social media pages. Each participant then got paid $5. Materials included a trough of water and a towel. The basin got used for holding and pouring water, while the towel got used for its water retention capacity. The procedure included waterboarding (pretentiously) the participants by placing the towel on their face and trickling the water on the towel, with the volume of water coinciding with the time. Each actor would pretend to get drowned and complain with each increasing water volume until a maximum level.

  • Results

Of the participants, 25 delivered the maximum water volume, 15 participants stopped midway when instructed to continue. 

  • Discussion and conclusion.

A majority of the participants proved agitated, angry, and stressed with the person giving them instructions during the procedure. However, many of them went along with the orders in as much as they proved uncomfortable with their actions. As a result, the experiment shows that individuals can harm their counterparts intentionally when ordered to.

  • References, tables, appendix, and figures should entail the last sections of the research paper.


You should adhere to principles illustrated in the above example when writing your research paper, especially if you want it to come across as a professional piece.


Improving Quality of Your Coursework

When you have finished writing your coursework, you should feel motivated and confident of a good score. At times, it may be challenging to tell whether you have the best work or not. Though some people can give you varied opinions on your work quality, all may not be genuine.

You need to know how to write good quality work that meets the standard of your instructor’s requirement. You may have the basics on how to draft your assignment or not. The guide provides more information on working on the quality of your coursework and producing the best standard.

Choose a suitable topic

Before you begin writing, ensure that you choose a good topic that has enough information to report. Your paper quality will depend on the type of case you choose. Some tutors may provide a topic to write, while others give you the liberty to generate a new one. A good topic comes from your areas of interest. It should also be unique and researchable.

To avoid writing irrelevant information, double-check with your teacher where you are unsure.

Follow the right paper format

Different coursework has different guidelines. Use the approved format when writing your paper. Most coursework follows the general research format. Such documents may need you to have the following sections:

  • Abstract

The abstract is a summary of what your whole paper contains. It has a brief of the problem of the article, core points, and the findings.

  • Introduction

Make sure that your introduction covers brief information about what your paper contains. Your introduction should brief and clear with the background information of the report.

  • Methodology

The methodology section of your easy covers the methods the paper uses to collect information and analyze its finding. Your essay should have this section mention all the procedures and apply them to ensure that your document contains quality information.

  • The results

The result section of your coursework should present the findings of your study. It would help if you made your paper rich by explaining any challenge you experienced in collecting information that answers your question in this section.

  • Discussion of the findings

In the discussion section, ensure that your paper explains the meaning of your findings. Sum up all your results and make some concluding remarks.

  • List of references

Never forget to reference your work. It will drastically reduce your paper quality and make it unauthentic. All the materials you used in writing your paper and the citations should appear in this section. They improve the value of your essay and make it credible.

Research widely on your topic before writing

Never make any write-up before gathering enough information on your topic. You will end up with less dense content. To improve your paper quality, take enough time to research your case. Find some innovative materials and information that will enrich your paper. If you research thoroughly, you will build your content and broaden your scope, which will contribute to your paper’s content quality.

Edit your coursework

Always ensure that you are submitting a clean and error-free paper. The tutor may not have time for reading through the contents. After finishing your writing, go to this coursework writing help service where experienced professionals can help you with writing and proofreading the coursework. They will correct any error such as sentence pattern issues and many others.

The best tip for correcting your paper is to take some time away from your report after writing. It gives you more time to look at the document with a fresh mind that will spot your writing mistakes.


develop and build on your skills to improve your writing. Paying special attention to the above tips will limit common writing mistakes and improve your paper quality.

Techniques to Proofread and Edit Your Paper

Technology has revolutionized everything in the modern world. Consequently, word processors and phones have increasingly become efficient, especially when it comes to correcting typing and other text mistakes that people commonly make. Additionally, other editing programs exist, and these get developed by programmers and editors, which makes it essential to proofread your document.

Most students, however, get challenged when it comes to proofreading their documents. So how can you proofread it effectively to avoid making grammatical and punctuation mistakes?

Guidelines to Proofread Your Work Effectively

If you prove a student who has completed their write-up, then it becomes essential to edit and proofread your work before submitting it for grading. The same applies to professionals in their respective fields, especially when it has something to do with submitting reports, letters, memos, emails, and other crucial documents. You do not want to communicate a message and get your superiors or juniors to misconstrue it to mean something else. However, if you doubt your proofing skills, you can consider adopting the following tips in effectively proofreading your document.

  • Try and proofread your document in an environment that has no distraction. Additionally, try and avoid multitasking, so keep your phone away or off when proofing your work and avoid listening to music that comes wordy. Such activities and things can shift your attention by competing with your brain’s language center, thereby rendering you ineffective.  
  • Shift the context. It could help if you considered changing your work to look different in terms of the font. Further,  get a printout if you used a computer to type the document or consider reading the text aloud. When you decide to carry out either of these activities, it will force you into having a different outlook of the work, and this will assist you in spotting mistakes.
  • Comprehend your homonyms thoroughly.  A lot of people communicate a lot more in speech rather than using write-ups. Consequently, such people get worried about similar-sounding words, rather than words with the same sound but different spellings and meanings. So try and keep an eye on the potential blunders, such as “except” and “accept,” “capital” and “Capitol,” etc. Try to avoid the confusion that comes with such words.
  • Understand your contractions. Words such as “it’s” and “its” prove different. Similarly, words like “your” and “you’re” also don’t mean the same thing. So watch out for such words and use them correctly.
  • Strengthen your awareness when it comes to your punctuation. It always happens that the majority of your time can get spent on grammar and spelling. However, try and focus on punctuations as well as they can prove small and easily overlooked.
  • Read backward. It can prove useful to read backward when it comes to spotting errors in sentence structure. When an individual writes, you often anticipate the structure with it becoming easy to make and mistakes.
  • Ask a trusted co-worker or friend to check the document for errors that you might have missed.


You have to consider the techniques illustrated when you want to proofread your work effectively. So pick everything you can, and good luck.

Microeconomics Term Paper Topics

Microeconomics is the study of an individual, a household, a business, or a market economic behavior in regards to selling and buying services and goods. It is often difficult for students to choose topics from this category. The student difficulty is not the lack of content but too much similar information available.

Macroeconomics mostly focuses on the study of actions and human interaction. It deals with firms and individuals that do business together and concentrate on rational choices and incentives.

As a student, you ought to be aware of a few themes, for example,

  • The study of supply and demand for services and goods
  • Scarce resources and money prices
  • Production factors
  • The flexibility of demand
  • Why the cost of products and enterprises change?
  • The ramifications of these progressions to the suppliers, consumers, producers, and government

These are simple microeconomics research paper points. You can create them dependent on the basic microeconomics supposition that characters are objective, and they try to utilize scarce assets to address their issues ideally. Shortage and decision communicate and bring about an exchange, demand, profits losses, and competition.

Note that you need to pick a point that portrays your polished skill. Keep in mind that each student craves to compose on a subject that will make you shine from every other person. Below are some topic examples that will guide you in coming up with the best microeconomics research paper.

  • Fascinating microeconomics research paper topics
  • How do minimum wage policies affect the labor market?
  • What will be the effect of demand exceeding supply in the oil markets?
  • What is the impact of advertising on consumer demand?
  • How does social media affect the labor market?
  • Game hypothesis
  • Consumer and monopoly theory
  • Perfect and Imperfect rivalry
  • The hypothesis of near favorable position
  • The hypothesis of outright favorable position
  • The impact of demand and supply on valuing
  • The workforce and its impact on supply and demand
  • Inflation and taxation
  • Nature as a casualty of industrialization
  • The effect of minimum wage regulation
  • Uncertainties and risks in business expansion
  • Factors limiting the growth of micro-enterprises
  • Market structures in unplanned economies

Assume you have a term paper you need to submit to your teacher before the end of the semester. Presently, you do not know how you should begin or what you ought to do to compose a decent paper. You can attempt, however much as could reasonably be possible to consummate your work. Be that as it may, this may cost you a great deal of energy and time, especially when managing microeconomics research paper themes. There is a high likelihood that the timeline will force to compose the term paper under intense pressure. A decent remedy for this issue is to look for help from other essayists.

Try not to be shy when requesting help at Much of the time, your folks or teachers believe it is simple to finish your assignments. They think that you can pick subjects to compose a microeconomics research paper without their assistance. Be that as it may, these decisions depend on their experience. They don’t know about the numerous difficulties that you are experiencing. They believe that all you need is to go to classes. They don’t realize that you might need to manage intricate, exhausting, and intense papers within a brief period. A few people can even chuckle at you when they hear that you remain with your work. The time has come to quit stressing for good. Follow the above guideline, and you are sure of producing the best paper. Remember there the provided list is not exhaustive, you can read most and expand on your topic list.